3D Additive Manufacturing Driven Towards the Molecular Scale

The Cluster of Excellence is a collaboration of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Heidelberg University (Uni HD). It pursues an interdisciplinary approach through conjunction of natural, engineering, and social sciences. 3DMM2O establishes scalable digital 3D Additive Manufacturing transcending from the molecular to the macroscopic scale.

This approach converts digital information into functional materials, devices and systems “made to order.” 3DMM2O creates a powerful technology push and pull by treating molecular materials, technologies and applications as indissolubly intertwined.

On the technology side, the scientific challenges are “finer, faster, and more”, i.e., advance molecular materials and technologies in terms of resolution, speed, and multi-material printing by orders of magnitude.

On the application side, we aim at functional 3D hybrid optical and electronic systems, 3D artificial materials called metamaterials, and at reconstructing functioning organotypic systems by using 3D scaffolds for cell culture.

Cluster Spokespersons

Martin Wegener

Prof. Dr. Martin Wegener
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
martin wegener∂kit edu

Christine Selhuber-Unkel

Prof. Dr. Christine Selhuber-Unkel
Heidelberg University


Overview of the main active materials and four core application areas of multi-photon 3D laser printing
New Review on Recent Advances in Multi-Photon 3D Laser Printing


Multi-photon 3D laser printing, also known as direct laser writing (DLW), has revolutionized the fabrication of complex microstructures. A new review by co-first authors Cluster Young Scientists Philipp Mainik and Christoph Spiegel as well as PI Eva Blasco highlights recent advances in the field, with a focus on the use of active materials. The review published in Advanced Materials provides a comprehensive overview of the latest advances and challenges, and it offers insights into the future of the field, covering a wide range of topics, including applications in microrobotics, optics and photonics, microfluidics, and life sciences.

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Cluster Conference 2024
Registration for the Cluster Conference 2024 now open


You can now register for the 3DMM2O Conference 2024 – Future 3D Additive Manufacturing on the topic 3D Cellular Systems: Synthetic Environments, Mechanobiology & Organoids. It will take place from April 7 to April 11 in the baroque Schöntal Monastery, Germany (near Heilbronn) and aims at bridging the gap between advanced biomaterials design and its application in biological research. Conference chairs are Martin Bastmeyer (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT), Kerstin Göpfrich (Heidelberg University), and Ulrich Schwarz (Heidelberg University). Early bird tickets are available until November 30!

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Materials Day
KIT Materials Day 2023


The third Materials Day of the KIT Materials Center takes place on October 25, 2023, from 9:30 am to 4:00 pm at the auditorium of the "Fortbildungszentrum für Technik und Umwelt (FTU)" at KIT Campus North. The Materials Day is meant to bring together scientists interested in materials research at KIT, giving them the opportunity to inform about current topics with a poster presentation or to give a short talk on recent scientific highlights. Participation is open to the public and free of charge, but a binding online registration is required until Wednesday, October 18. 

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Martin Wegener
Martin Wegener receives MOC Award


Cluster PI and Spokesperson Martin Wegener received the prestigious MOC Award from the Japan Society of Applied Physics / Microoptics Research Group for his pioneering contributions to the research on 3D additive manufacturing of metamaterials. The award ceremony took place during the 28th Microoptics Conference on September 25, 2023, at the Seagaia Convention Center, Mayazaki, Japan. Prof. Wegener gave a plenary talk about the status and perspectives of 3D laser micro- and nanoprinting beforehand. Congratulations!

More about the Conference
Friederich and Jekely
The Cluster welcomes two new Associate PIs


We warmly welcome T.T.-Prof. Dr. Pascal Friederich and Prof. Gáspár Jékely as new Associate Principal Investigators in our Cluster! Pascal Friederich is head of the research group "Artificial Intelligence for Materials Sciences" at the Institute of Theoretical Informatics and associated group leader at the Institute of Nanotechnology, both at KIT. Gáspár Jékely is Professor of Molecular Organismal Biology at the Centre for Organismal Studies of Heidelberg University and head of the department "Evolutionary Neurobiology". We wish both of them a good start in our Cluster and look forward to fruitful collaboration.

The taxonomy of the currentreview: photoresistsfor light-driven 3D printing that function photoinitiator-free and those that require a photoinitiator to proceed.
Cluster Review on Photochemically Activated 3D Printing Inks


In a recent Cluster publication by first author Young Scientist Steven Gauci, the authors review the current status, challenges, and opportunities of photochemically activated 3D printing inks. The publication published in Advanced Materials is a collaboration of Heidelberg University, KIT, and the QUT Centre for Materials Science. Besides second author Young Scientist Aleksandra Vranić, who also strongly contributed to the paper, Cluster PIs Eva Blasco, Stefan Bräse, Martin Wegener, and Christopher Barner-Kowollik were involved.

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