3D Additive Manufacturing Driven Towards the Molecular Scale

The Cluster of Excellence is a collaboration of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Heidelberg University (Uni HD). It pursues an interdisciplinary approach through conjunction of natural, engineering, and social sciences. 3DMM2O establishes scalable digital 3D Additive Manufacturing transcending from the molecular to the macroscopic scale.

This approach converts digital information into functional materials, devices and systems “made to order.” 3DMM2O creates a powerful technology push and pull by treating molecular materials, technologies and applications as indissolubly intertwined.

On the technology side, the scientific challenges are “finer, faster, and more”, i.e., advance molecular materials and technologies in terms of resolution, speed, and multi-material printing by orders of magnitude.

On the application side, we aim at functional 3D hybrid optical and electronic systems, 3D artificial materials called metamaterials, and at reconstructing functioning organotypic systems by using 3D scaffolds for cell culture.

Cluster Spokespersons

Martin Wegener

Prof. Dr. Martin Wegener
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
martin wegener∂kit edu

Prof. Dr. Jochen Wittbrodt
Heidelberg University
jochen wittbrodt∂cos uni-heidelberg de


Cover image of the PodcastCluster 3DMM2O
Podcast "Auf Knopfdruck" launched


Together with the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis, the Cluster 3DMM2O has produced a five-part German-language podcast series exploring 3D printing technology and its current and future implications for society. In each episode, science journalist Isabelle Rogge talks to two experts that are working either with or on the technology or explore its societal impact. Four episodes are already available on all major platforms.

Learn More (German)
Image depicting the construction and fabrication of MetamaterialsNature / Martin Wegener
Nature Portfolio Collection Features Cluster Publications


The editorial team of Nature Communications Engineering recently published a collection of papers on the topic "Mechanical Metamaterials". It features three papers with involvement by Cluster Principal Investigators Martin Wegener as well as Peter Gumbsch: Frenzel et al. (2021), Wang et al. (2022) and Fang et al. (2022).

See the Collection
Christopher Barner-Kowollik presenting at Future 3D AM 2022Cluster 3DMM2O
Christopher Barner-Kowollik receives EPF Prize 2022


During a special session at the EPF Congress, Principal Investigator Christopher Barner-Kowollik has been awarded the European Polymer Federation Prize 2022. The board of the European Polymer Federation honored Barner-Kowollik's “pioneering work in the field of macromolecular photochemistry enabling unprecedented access to polymer design, spatially resolved interface functionalization and advanced photoresists technology”.

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Portrait image BlascoHeidelberg University, Communications and Marketing
Eva Blasco receives Dr. Herrmann Schnell grant


Principal Investigator Eva Blasco will receive a Dr. Herrmann Schnell grant. With this award, the German Chemical Society (GDCh) honors Blasco's "innovative research work in the highly topical area of functional materials for 3D laser printing and lithography." The prize will be officially awarded during the Biennial Meeting of the GDCh-Division of Macromolecular Chemistry in September.

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Portrait imageClara Vazquez-Martel
Cluster Young Scientist invited to Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting


The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings aim at exchange between different generations, cultures and disciplines by bringing together Nobel Laureates and the next generation of leading scientists.This year, the Chemistry meeting takes place from June 26 to July 1. Cluster Young Scientist Clara Vázquez-Martel from the group of Principal Investigator Eva Blasco is one of the participants of this prestigious event.

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Screenshot 2022-06-13 120105Peter Gumbsch et al.
Publication on Gear-Based Metamaterials


In a new paper published in Nature Materials, researchers including PI Peter Gumbsch show their research on metamaterials that can fully reconfigure their meta-atoms in a wide range, allowing direct access to anisotropies of different types. The approach is based on connecting classical gears, with the gear-based metamaterials providing excellent properties. This allows for metamaterial customization and brings fully programmable materials and adaptive robots within reach.


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