3D Additive Manufacturing Driven Towards the Molecular Scale

The Cluster of Excellence is a collaboration of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Heidelberg University (Uni HD). It pursues an interdisciplinary approach through conjunction of natural, engineering, and social sciences. 3DMM2O establishes scalable digital 3D Additive Manufacturing transcending from the molecular to the macroscopic scale.

This approach converts digital information into functional materials, devices and systems “made to order.” 3DMM2O creates a powerful technology push and pull by treating molecular materials, technologies and applications as indissolubly intertwined.

On the technology side, the scientific challenges are “finer, faster, and more”, i.e., advance molecular materials and technologies in terms of resolution, speed, and multi-material printing by orders of magnitude.

On the application side, we aim at functional 3D hybrid optical and electronic systems, 3D artificial materials called metamaterials, and at reconstructing functioning organotypic systems by using 3D scaffolds for cell culture.

Cluster Spokespersons

Martin Wegener

Prof. Dr. Martin Wegener
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
martin wegener∂kit edu

Prof. Dr. Jochen Wittbrodt
Heidelberg University
jochen wittbrodt∂cos uni-heidelberg de


Overview of the study
Two Functions from a Single Photoresist


A recent Cluster publication in Advanced Materials with participation of PI Eva Blasco and Christopher Barner-Kowollik introduces the first example where 3D structures consisting of both degradable and non-degradable segments can be printed via direct laser writing (DLW) from a single photoresist based on a light-stabilized dynamic material. The authors were able to selectively toggle between stable and fully degradable structures, simplifying the direct laser writing manufacturing process of multi-functional materials significantly, which typically requires the use of separate resists and consecutive writing efforts to achieve degradable and non-degradable material sections.

To the Publication
Poster Award
3DMM2O Poster Awards presented at the Cluster Conference


At this year's 3DMM2O Conference – Future 3D Additive Manufacturing three posters by Young Scientists were acknowledged with an award endowed at 500 euros each. The evaluation was carried out by external speakers on the basis of visual impression, content and presentation of the poster. The winners are Barbara Schamberger, Maria Villiou (both PI Christine Selhuber-Unkel) and Britta Weidinger (PI Eva Blasco). Congratulations!



Battery Thickness Monitoring
High-Resolution Battery Thickness Monitoring


First author Young Scientist Pariya Nazari presents the realization of a highly sensitive and highly compliant microfiber strain sensor for high-resolution and real-time Li-ion battery thickness monitoring in a new Cluster publication published in Advanced Materials. The good dynamic strain sensing properties, lightweight, miniature form factor and high durability suggest that this economic and simple approach offers promising pathways for in-situ lithium-ion battery thickness monitoring applications. The publication is the result of a close collaboration between Heidelberg University and KIT. Also involved were PIs Jasmin Aghassi-Hagmann, Gerardo Hernandez Sosa and Uli Lemmer.

To the Publication
Laser printed microelectronics
Laser Printed Microelectronics


A new Cluster publication on laser printed microelectronics resulted from the strong collaboration between Heidelberg University and KIT. The paper by first author Young Scientist Liang Yang introduces laser printing with three different inks (zink oxide, platinum and silver) as a facile process for fabricating printed functional electronic devices with minimum feature sizes below 1 µm. The research has potential implications for the development of sensors, bioelectronics, and security applications. Four Principal Investigators were involved in this publication published in Nature Communications.

To the Publication
Monsur IslamMonsur Islam
Monsur Islam awarded Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions Postdoctoral Fellowship


Cluster Young Scientist Monsur Islam has been awarded the prestigious Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions Postdoctoral Fellowship for his project on 3D Printing of pyrolytic and graphitic Carbon. The project will be hosted at the IMDEA Materials Institute in Madrid, Spain. The Fellowship targets researchers holding a PhD who wish to carry out their research activities abroad, acquire new skills and develop their careers. It helps researchers gain experience in other countries, disciplines and non-academic sectors.

Further information on the Fellowship
Instagram Channel launched


The Cluster 3DMM2O is now also present on Instagram! With Instagram we try to reach a younger audience interested in our research with different formats. Following an edutainment approach, we will explain interesting topics surrounding additive manufacturing and give vivid insights into our work. To allow a more personal approach and connection to our Cluster, a focus will also be on presenting the researchers involved.

To our Instagram channel