3D Additive Manufacturing Driven Towards the Molecular Scale

The Cluster of Excellence is a collaboration of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Heidelberg University (Uni HD). It pursues an interdisciplinary approach through conjunction of natural, engineering, and social sciences. 3DMM2O establishes scalable digital 3D Additive Manufacturing transcending from the molecular to the macroscopic scale.

This approach converts digital information into functional materials, devices and systems “made to order.” 3DMM2O creates a powerful technology push and pull by treating molecular materials, technologies and applications as indissolubly intertwined.

On the technology side, the scientific challenges are “finer, faster, and more”, i.e., advance molecular materials and technologies in terms of resolution, speed, and multi-material printing by orders of magnitude.

On the application side, we aim at functional 3D hybrid optical and electronic systems, 3D artificial materials called metamaterials, and at reconstructing functioning organotypic systems by using 3D scaffolds for cell culture.

Cluster Spokespersons

Martin Wegener

Prof. Dr. Martin Wegener
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
E-Mail: martin wegener∂kit edu

Uwe Bunz

Prof. Dr. Uwe Bunz
Heidelberg University
E-Mail: uwe bunz∂oci uni-heidelberg de


3D printed superhydrophobic objectsDong et al. 2021 / KIT
New Material for 3D Printing

A new publication by Cluster Young Scientist Zheqin Dong (first author) as well as Principal Investigator Pavel Levkin and other members of his group presents a new materials concept for 3D printing of complex-shaped objects with bulk superhydrophobicity, a property that is desirable for a broad range of applications such as anti-wetting materials for engineering and environmental technologies, microfluidics or medical devices. The paper was published in Advanced Materials.

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New Women in Science Videos released: Svenja de Buhr (left) and Saskia Braun (right)Cluster 3DMM2O / Agentur Triebfeder
Women in Science: New Videos


In two new Women in Science videos, Young Scientists Svenja de Buhr and Saskia Braun detail their scientific journey. In the video featuring Svenja de Buhr, she talks about how she changed her focus from medical to basic research. In the video featuring Saskia Braun, she explains what fascinates her about her research and how she shares that fascination through science communication. 


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The sensor unit, consisting of a graphene field-effect transistor on which a surface-bonded metal-organic framework is grown.Sandeep Kumar, KIT
New Molecule Sensor Utilising SURMOFs


Researchers from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Technical University of Darmstadt, including Principal Investigators Wolfgang Wenzel and Christof Wöll, present a novel sensor for gas molecules. Combining a graphene transistor with a customized metal-organic coating (SURMOF), the sensor detects molecules selectively and accurately. SURMOFs are a focus of Thrust A2.

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Thumbnail ELI5 VideosCluster 3DMM2O / Agentur Triebfeder
Explain Like I'm Five: New Videos


Two new videos have been released in the Explain Like I'm Five series. In the first one, Saskia Braun explains her research into new materials for 3D Printing and the role chemistry plays for the specific type of 3D Printing she uses. The second video features Johannes Scheiger and Mariia Kuzina as they provide an insight into their recently published research on liquid walls.

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Comparative view of developing retina in fish embryo and organoid from petri dish.Zilova, Weinhardt et al. 2021
Fish Eyes From a Petri Dish


A better understanding of retinal development is key to the goal of Research Thrust C3: creating a re-designed retina using 3D Bioprinting. In a new paper published in eLife, first author Cluster Young Scientist Dr. Lucie Zilova and other members of the group of Principal Investigator Joachim Wittbrodt demonstrate cultivation of complex retinal tissue from embryonic stem cells of bony fishes.

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Cluster Conference 2022Cluster 3DMM2O
Register Now for the Cluster Conference 2022!


Registrations for Future 3D Additive Manufacturing - The 3DMM2O Conference 2022: 3D Nano- and Micro-Manufacturing: Technology and Technical Applications are now open! The conference will take place from April 3-8, 2022 in the baroque monastery of Schöntal, Germany (near Heilbronn).

Find Out More & Register