3D Additive Manufacturing Driven Towards the Molecular Scale

The Cluster of Excellence is a collaboration of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Heidelberg University (Uni HD). It pursues an interdisciplinary approach through conjunction of natural, engineering, and social sciences. 3DMM2O establishes scalable digital 3D Additive Manufacturing transcending from the molecular to the macroscopic scale.

This approach converts digital information into functional materials, devices and systems “made to order.” 3DMM2O creates a powerful technology push and pull by treating molecular materials, technologies and applications as indissolubly intertwined.

On the technology side, the scientific challenges are “finer, faster, and more”, i.e., advance molecular materials and technologies in terms of resolution, speed, and multi-material printing by orders of magnitude.

On the application side, we aim at functional 3D hybrid optical and electronic systems, 3D artificial materials called metamaterials, and at reconstructing functioning organotypic systems by using 3D scaffolds for cell culture.

Cluster Spokespersons

Martin Wegener

Prof. Dr. Martin Wegener
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
martin wegener∂kit edu

Christine Selhuber-Unkel

Prof. Dr. Christine Selhuber-Unkel
Heidelberg University


Martin Wegener
Martin Wegener receives MOC Award


Cluster PI and Spokesperson Martin Wegener received the prestigious MOC Award from the Japan Society of Applied Physics / Microoptics Research Group for his pioneering contributions to the research on 3D additive manufacturing of metamaterials. The award ceremony took place during the 28th Microoptics Conference on September 25, 2023, at the Seagaia Convention Center, Mayazaki, Japan. Prof. Wegener gave a plenary talk about the status and perspectives of 3D laser micro- and nanoprinting beforehand. Congratulations!

More about the Conference
Friederich and Jekely
The Cluster welcomes two new Associate PIs


We warmly welcome T.T.-Prof. Dr. Pascal Friederich and Prof. Gáspár Jékely as new Associate Principal Investigators in our Cluster! Pascal Friederich is head of the research group "Artificial Intelligence for Materials Sciences" at the Institute of Theoretical Informatics and associated group leader at the Institute of Nanotechnology, both at KIT. Gáspár Jékely is Professor of Molecular Organismal Biology at the Centre for Organismal Studies of Heidelberg University and head of the department "Evolutionary Neurobiology". We wish both of them a good start in our Cluster and look forward to fruitful collaboration.

The taxonomy of the currentreview: photoresistsfor light-driven 3D printing that function photoinitiator-free and those that require a photoinitiator to proceed.
Cluster Review on Photochemically Activated 3D Printing Inks


In a recent Cluster publication by first author Young Scientist Steven Gauci, the authors review the current status, challenges, and opportunities of photochemically activated 3D printing inks. The publication published in Advanced Materials is a collaboration of Heidelberg University, KIT, and the QUT Centre for Materials Science. Besides second author Young Scientist Aleksandra Vranić, who also strongly contributed to the paper, Cluster PIs Eva Blasco, Stefan Bräse, Martin Wegener, and Christopher Barner-Kowollik were involved.

To the Publication
Stefanie Dehnen
Stefanie Dehnen elected President of the GDCh


Cluster PI Stefanie Dehnen was elected president of the German Chemical Society (GDCh) for the years 2024/2025. The election took place during the board meeting of the GDCh Science Forum Chemistry 2023 in Leipzig. The GDCh is the largest chemical society in continental Europe with over 30,000 members from academia, education, industry, and other areas. Its mission is to support chemistry in teaching, research, and application and to promote the understanding of chemistry in the public. Congratulations!

To the German Chemical Society
Group Picture Summer Science Academy
HEiKA Summer Science Academy 2023


From August 27 to September 1, the HEiKA Summer Science Academy 2023 took place at the Black Forest hotel "Zuflucht". Interested master students had the opportunity to learn from Cluster PIs, leading experts in the field of 3D Materials and Applications, about topics ranging from new 3D printing strategies to optoelectronic devices, microscopy and spectroscopy, and hybrid organoid systems. In addition to the lectures and workshops, the students also had the chance to explore the Black Forest, share ideas, and network with their peers. Thank you to everyone who made this event possible, especially the lecturers and organizers.

More Impressions
Mechanical Metamaterials


From the Stone Age to the Metamaterial Age? A recent Cluster publication with PI Martin Wegener published in the IOP journal "Reports on Progress in Physics" summarizes the conceptual as well as experimental state-of-the-art of mechanical metamaterials, including different functional architectures, dimensions, and length scales, ranging from below one micrometer to tens of meters. The review addresses an approach that is based on creating artificial atoms with designed and tailored properties, allowing for desired behavior and functionalities of the artificial amorphous arrangements.

To the Publication